| 1. CPR compressions are performed by pressing on which flat bone?
[c. sternum/breast bone] The correct hand position for the adult victim is on the lower 1/3 of the sternum, one "finger's width" above the sternal notch. [a. back bone; b. rib bone - are incorrect]
2. The head tilt / chin lift method to open the airway moves which muscle out of the way?
[a. tongue] The tongue is connected to the lower jaw. When the head tilt/chin lift is performed, the airway is opened because the tongue is lifted from the passageway. [b. jaw muscle; c. nasal bicep - are incorrect]
3. What is the common name for the subdiaphragmatic abdominal thrust?
[a. Heimlich Maneuver] This procedure was described and named by Dr. Henry Heimlich, and involves compressing the diaphragm inward and upward. As the internal pressure builds, the object is forced out of the airway. [b. Hemlock maneuver; c. Henry's maneuver - are incorrect]
4. What should be done if an adult is found to be unresponsive
[a. call EMS/ 911] A major predictor of survival following cardiac arrest (the major cause of death in adults) is how long it takes the rescue squad to arrive and start advanced lifesaving care. Therefore, the recommended procedure is that if one finds any unresponsive or unconscious adult, EMS should immediately be contacted. If there is another person available, tell them to call. If you are alone, leave the unresponsive person and call EMS/911 yourself. Then return to the person knowing that EMS is on the way. [b. start CPR; c. start mouth-to-mouth - are incorrect]
5. How should an unconscious breathing person be positioned?
[b. On their side/recovery position] The American Heart Association recommends placing a person on one side (preferable their left side) in a "recovery position" if he/she is breathing (unresponsive or responsive), but without suspected head, neck or spine injury. This position reduces the potential complications associated with vomiting while laying on one's back. [a. on their back; c. on their belly - are incorrect.]
6. A CPR resuscitation mask should have what components?
[a. one-way valve, good seal, 02 port] The use of a CPR resuscitation mask is considered an "effective and recommended barrier" (by the American Heart Association) when it meets certain criteria: a one-way valve to permit exhaled air or material to move away from the rescuer; a good seal on the face to allow ventilations to go into the airway rather than escaping along the person's face; an oxygen port to allow a mask to connect to a supply of supplemental oxygen, thus increasing the amount available during each ventilation. Use of a mask with oxygen increases the chances of survival during CPR efforts. [b. two-way valve, trained seal, glass of port; c. no valve, no seal, no port - are incorrect]
7. What is the ratio of compressions to ventilations in one-rescuer adult CPR?
[a. 15 compressions to 2 ventilations] The current recommendation is 15 compressions and 2 ventilations for one-person adult CPR. Four sets of 15 + 2 are performed in approximately one minute sequences. [b. 10 compressions to 1 ventilation; c. 5 compressions to 5 ventilations - are incorrect]
8. Drinking too much of what substance before eating can lead to airway blockage?
[b. alcohol] Alcohol is a depressant which can reduce nerve transmission in the upper palate. When this occurs, a person may not chew enough, and/or may swallow too soon when the food is too large. This can lead to an obstruction in the passageway to the lungs. [ a. seltzer; c. coffee - are incorrect]
9. To help control shock in an injured or ill person, what first aid device should be used?
[b. Emergency Oxygen] Administration of emergency oxygen is recommended for all cases of actual or suspected shock (from blood loss, heart problems, poison, trauma, emotions, or any other medical or physical problem). Emergency oxygen is considered a basic first aid device for use by responders at the scene; a prescription or medical control is not needed. [a. shirt; c. tourniquet - are incorrect]
10. In approximately what percent of emergencies are the victims breathing? [a. 95%] According to the American College of Surgeons Trauma Life Support Course, 95% of all emergencies involve a breathing person. Data from the Chicago, IL and New York, NY EMS systems indicate it is 98% in their cities. [ b. 75%; c. 50% - are incorrect]